What is endoscope reprocessing?
"Reprocessing" is the term used for the proper cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization of an endoscope.
Cleaning: "The first and most important step in removing the microbial burden from an endoscope. Retained debris may inactivate or interfere with the capability of the chemical solution to effectively kill and/or inactivate microorganisms." — Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates, Inc. (SGNA)
Disinfection: "A process that results in the killing of all vegetative bacteria, viruses, fungi, and mycobacteria, but not necessarily all bacterial spores. The Spaulding Classification identifies HLD [high-level disinfection] as the standard for medical devices that touch mucous membranes, such as endoscopes." — Association of Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC)
Sterilization: "A process that results in the complete elimination or destruction or all forms of microbial life. The Spaulding Classification identifies sterilization as the standard? for medical devices that enter the vascular system or sterile tissue, such as biopsy forceps." — Association of Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC)
What is endoscopy?
Endoscopy is the insertion of a long, thin tube directly into the body to observe an internal organ or tissue in detail. It can also be used to carry out other tasks including imaging and minor surgery.
Endoscopes are minimally invasive and can be inserted into the natural openings of the body such as the mouth or anus.
Alternatively, they can be inserted into small incisions, for instance, in the knee; this is referred to as an arthroscopy. Surgery completed through a small incision and assisted with special instruments, such as the endoscope, is called keyhole surgery.
Because modern endoscopy has relatively few risks, delivers detailed images, and is quick to carry out, it has proven incredibly useful in many areas of medicine.
In 1806, Philipp Bozzini, a German doctor, invented the first endoscope. He designed it to inspect the ear, urethra, rectum, female bladder, cervix, mouth, nasal cavity, and wounds.
In the following 200 years, endoscopy has been highly utilized as a relatively safe way to observe the inner workings of the human body in health and disease.
Today, tens of millions of endoscopies are carried out each year.
Source: Medical News Today
What are the different types of endoscopy?
Endoscopy is useful for investigating a wide range of anatomical structures within the human body. These areas include:
Gastrointestinal tract: esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (esophagogastroduodenoscopy), small intestine (enteroscopy), large intestine/colon (colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy), bile duct, rectum (rectoscopy), and anus (anoscopy)
Respiratory tract: nose (rhinoscopy), lower respiratory tract (bronchoscopy)
Urinary tract (cystoscopy)
Female reproductive tract (gynoscopy): cervix (colposcopy), uterus (hysteroscopy), fallopian tubes (falloposcopy)
Through a small incision: abdominal or pelvic cavity (laparoscopy), interior of a joint (arthroscopy), organs of the chest (thoracoscopy and mediastinoscopy)
Source: Medical News Today
What are the main components of an endoscope?
A standard endocope consists of the following components:
Diagram A-1: Standard Flexible Endoscope
Flexible or rigid tube
Lens to transmit the image of the patient’s internal system to the operator or viewer (this is generally a relay lens in rigid endoscopes, or multiple fiber-optics for fiberscopes)
A system to transmit light to enhance the visibility of the area being examined (the source of this light is usually based outside of the body, directed through optical fibers)
An extra channel to accommodate manipulators of medical instruments for surgical procedures
An eyepiece (in videoscopes lacking eyepieces, images from inside the patient are sent to a screen for viewing and capture)
How do you pronounce endoscopy?